Life and Nature ~ Page 11 din 11

Gamma Ray Bursts

In 1967, a satellite designed to spot Soviet nuclear explosions detected gigantic energy blasts from deep space — and astronomy was confronted with another mystery. Gamma-ray bursts. This is for Tuesday, July 17 — with a landmark in 20th century science. In 1963 the United States signed a treaty with the Soviet Union that banned nuclear explosions in space. To verify treaty compliance, the Defense …

Cosmic Background Radiation

In 1965 astronomers announced that they had detected an “echo” of the Big Bang — the event in which our universe is believed to have been born. Cosmic background radiation. This is for Sunday, July 1 — with a landmark in 20th century science. On today’s date in 1965, scientists announced strong evidence that our universe was created in a Big Bang. Tune your radio between …

Hans Bethe: where do the stars get their energy?

In 1938, Hans Bethe’s pioneering work answered a question that had been nagging scientists for years — that is, where do the stars get their energy? This is for Monday, July 2 — a landmark date in 20th century science — the birthday in 1906 of Hans Albrecht Bethe. Bethe served as the chief of the theoretical division for the Atomic Bomb Project. At the …

New York City vs. Catskill Watershed Residents

Since 1840, New York City has been drawing water through an aqueduct from the Croton River north of the city. With an increase in population over the years the demand for water became greater. As a result, New York City needed to expand the reservoir system. Early in the twentieth century New York bought land two hundred miles north of the city in the Catskill …

Bee Control: Simple swarm control

A simple method of swarm control & queen rearing This is yet another variation on the artificial swarming technique; it has the advantage over other methods of requiring no attention after the initial manipulation and is therefore suitable for an out apiary, or for a beekeeper who wishes to take a prolonged holiday during the swarming season. It also provides an additional young queen that …

Bee Culture: The Causes of Bad Temper in Bees

The principle sub-species of European honeybees all have the reputation for gentleness and ease of handling, possibly because they have been selectively bred for these characteristics for generations in the countries of their origin. The Italian bee, which is the foreign bee most commonly met with in these islands, is usually found to be so, but many beekeepers who have introduced Italian bees into areas …

Bee Culture: Heather Honey

What is Heather ? Heathers are small evergreen shrubs that grow well in acid soil and are common throughout Europe. You can commonly find them on poor soils, heathland, moors and in mountainous areas. In our area the main types of Heather Honey are : Bell Heather # ( ERICACEA Erica cinerea )— which flowers during July/August and can be extracted centrifugally, in the normal …

Varroosis: a parasitic infestation of honey bees

What is Varroosis ? The infestation of honey bee colonies by the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni is known as varroosis (pronounced varro-osis. This mite, generally referred to simply as varroa, is specific to honey bees. the natural host of varroa is the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana , which has its own natural defences against the mite. Through movement of colonies, varroa has spread to …

Bee Culture: Pneumatic Equipment: The Good and The Bad

Pneumatic staplers are reported to be four to five times faster than hand nailing and due to various adhesive materials coating the fasteners, pneumatic fasteners should provide considerably more holding power. In reality, when assembling frames, I have p ersonally found air staplers to be about 2-1/2 times as fast as hand nailing. An added benefit is that I donít tire as quickly when using …

Bee Culture: Frame Components

The Top Bar The top bar can be either thick ( 3/4″ ) or thin (3/8″ ). All manufactured top bars are 18-7/8″ to 19″ long and are 1-1/16″ wide. Though still usable, the variation in length is just enough to cause a bit of confusion if equipment from diffe rent manufacturers is mixed. Thin top bars are used for comb honey production and may …

Bee Culture: The mysterious case of the disappearing queen

What an apt name for the perceived leader of the honey bee colony – the queen. Just like human royalty, the queen gets credit for all that’s good in the hive but also gets blamed for all that’s bad. But this past spring season has been one of the worst ever for blaming queens. While most beekeepers are totally happy with the development of their …

Bee Culture: Chalkbrood

Chalkbrood, a fungus disease attacking honey bee larvae, has been in the U.S. since the mid- to late 1960s. During its 30 or so year stay it has caused problems ranging from barely noticeable to major epidemics in some areas, in some years. This year bordered on the epidemic in many areas, especially the northern two-thirds of the country. Like most fungi, chalkbrood produces spores …