This article makes the argument, based on photographs from a NASA database and my own enlargements of those photographs, that there is a large modern city found on Mars. An additional, and not necessarily mutually exclusive, argument I make is that some of the photographs in the NASA Mars Viking database appear to have been faked! What is on Mars that NASA does not want us to see real photographs of? The NASA database, known as the PDS Mars Explorer for the Armchair Astronaut, is open to the public via the Internet and offers advanced features whereby the user can navigate around Mars either by pointing/clicking his computer mouse or by entering coordinates for latitude and longitude.
I have posted not only the NASA photographs but also my enlargements of portions of them which contain significant detail. You can make your own judgment after you see these photographs. To verify what you are seeing, I have also given links to the NASA database and a free downloadable graphics viewer so you can do the same kind of research that I have.
In 1971 NASA launched the Mariner 9 mission which went by Mars and served as a pathfinder for the Viking Project. The Viking Project, formally begun by NASA in 1968, was composed of two orbiters and two landers. The stated goal was to determine whether any life existed in the red soil of Mars. Viking Orbiter 1 took photographs of Mars as it orbited it 1120 times from June 19, 1976 through July 20, 1979 from heights ranging down to as low as 300 kilometers. Viking Orbiter 2 took photographs of Mars as it orbited it 706 times from August 7, 1976 through July 25, 1978 from heights ranging down to as low as 300 kilometers. Fifty thousand orbital images were taken on these Viking missions using two Vidicon cameras in each Orbiter. Photographs from these Viking Orbiters were assembled by NASA into a database which was turned over to The United States Geologic Survey – Astrogeology Team for management.
The photographs are mosaics, created by putting together the thousands of digital images taken by the two Viking Orbiters. There are imperfections you may note where the images join. They may not match up exactly- something like strips of patterned wallpaper that don’t exactly match up. Most objects in an area which show shadows will have the shadows on the same side. If you see objects in the same area with shadows on different sides, that is probably due to the fact that the images for each were taken at different times of the day, either before or after noon. Objects which appear flat may either be flat or may have been photographed near noon. One good evidence of the reality of an apparent object is when it casts a shadow which corresponds with its shape. Some shadows will give additional information about an object. For example, an overhead view of a tiered, pyramid shaped object may present a square footprint. The object’s shadow, however, may reveal progressively smaller square tiers placed on the large base square. Shadows on both sides of an object indicate the object is located in a depression or next to a hill. You can usually figure out which shadow is from the object and which is cast by the surrounding ground.
The advanced features on the web site allowed me to figure out the approximate size of objects at different settings for zoom in or zoom out. For example, I created a custom map, zoomed in one step less than as far as possible, which showed the lake, river, and much of the city. It was eight degrees wide in longitude (left longitude = -152.5 degrees west, right longitude = -160.5 degrees west) and also had an eight degree range in latitude (top latitude= 26.5 degrees north, bottom latitude= 18.5 degrees north). The image size was 1024 rows by 1024 columns. The program indicated the “Resolution = 128 pixels per degree = 0.54 kilometers per pixel = 0.25 miles per pixel.” I then noted exactly where the middle of the photograph was and printed a copy of the photograph which caught the left side and went beyond the middle point. I measured from the left side, longitude -152.5 degrees west, to the mid point and found it was 5 and 1/4 inches. So the entire eight degrees of longitude would be 10 and 1/2 inches wide. Given that the resolution was 128 pixels per degree with 0.25 miles per pixel, you can calculate that each degree is 32 miles. Given that the eight degree wide photograph was 10 and 1/2 inches wide, you can calculate that each inch equals 24.4 miles. I measured the length of the lake on the photograph and found it was 3 and 1/2 inches long before it becomes a river. Thus the lake is eighty five miles long. The resolution figures are given for the equator so there would be some variance as you go away from the equator. However, for our purposes, they provide a good approximation of size.
I was frustrated with the limit of the zoom feature on the Mars Explorer database since I wanted to see things closer up. I found a very good, free graphics viewer, Photonyx, which could take these Mars photographs and reduce or enlarge them by a factor of up to sixteen times. Taking the most zoomed in photographs of this section of Mars and experimenting, I found that I could use Photonyx to enlarge up to an additional 400% and retrieve further detail before the photo quality was lost. Some of these enlarged photographic sections are shown here. They show much more detail about the downtown section of the city and provide good detail about the size, shape, and features of the buildings in the desert areas away from the city. The enlargements also provide detail in support of the argument that at least some of the photographs have been faked by NASA.
Click on the links below to see some of the photographic evidence, some of it taken directly from the NASA database and the rest enlarged by me from what I took from the NASA database.
Discharging Pipe and Separate Lake
In the upper left quadrant of this image, there appears to be a large pipe discharging water. The pipe is fed by a “T” connection. This “T” connection could be a pipe or perhaps just large trenches. The discharge has created its own river which curves up and to the left for a long distance.
In the lower right quadrant of this image, there is a lake which is 85 miles long. It tapers down to a river which reaches the city. The river and city are on other images.
Lake To City Overview
The image below shows the lake leading to a river with a possible dam before the river comes to the west end of the city. The discolored oval area around the dam may be a basin that fills with water when the dam overflows its banks. It may also be possible that the appearance of the dam is an artifact created by the mosaic process.
Notice a crater on the upside of the lake toward the right end. The crater is half black/half white in color. Now look up 45 degrees to the right of this crater and you will find a large crater/extinct volcano aligned above the left side of the city. Midway between these two craters is a small object which has some shadowing around it. This object, when enlarged, turned out to be a very distinctly shaped building. You will be amazed when you see it on the page titled “Enlargement of Building Above The Dam Area.”
I want to express my gratitude here to Kent Steadman, the first person I am aware of who publicly identified the lake shown here. He also did some photographic enhancements with some graphics programs to extract more information about the lake. After I saw Kent’s work, I went back to the original source, the NASA database, to verify it. Then I started searching around the lake to see what else I could find. Most of what I found is on this site, although there are still a number of things I have not posted yet.
Enlargement Of Building Above The Dam Area
On the “Lake To City Overview” page, I drew your attention to one particular object that I said would be enlarged and shown to be a distinctly shaped building. When I enlarged it 400% with the Photonyx viewer, the building detail became even more clear. Look at those stepped, bilaterally symetrical edges! The building appears to sit in a depression. The left vertical edge of the building has three protruberances. I think these protruberances are lower in height than the top of the left vertical edge of the building since they do not cast a shadow beyond that already cast by the building. The image may also show a few smaller objects in the area.
Remember how one inch equaled 24.4 miles on the lake map at one step away from maximum zoom (128 pixels)? Well, this 400% enlargement was made from the maximum zoom where the resolution is 256 pixels. So, one inch on the original maximum zoom for this image would therefor equal 12.2 miles. Enlarging it 400% as I have done below means that one inch equals just a little over 3 miles. When I printed the image below, the left vertical edge of the building was one inch long. The building below is three miles wide at its widest section, the left vertical edge!
Take a long careful look at this overview of the city. Some things to note include the following: the river crosses through the left lower corner of the west (left) end of the city. The city has a long horizontal section in a basic rectangle shape which gets thinner as you go to the east (right). There are two thin rectangular sections branching down (south) from the horizontal city section. The most westerly branch down appears to go through a crater/boulder area where the development of the branch down apparently involved excavating half of the crater/boulder. The easterly branch down goes through another crater/boulder area where you see something resembling a human head seen from the side.
Above the horizontal section of the city are three equally spaced vertical dotted lines that look like stitching done by a seamstress. The most westerly one is located a little west (to the left) of the westerly branch down section. The most eastern one is located a little to the right of the eastern end of the city. The middle one is exactly in the middle of the other two. My guess is that these stitching lines represent some type of distribution system, either for water, power, or transportation.
I have an enlargement of the wide, western section of the city which I call the downtown area. I also have some enlargements of apparent buildings near the city but in the surrounding desert and some close to or on the stitching lines. These enlargements are on other pages.
I have enlarged a section of the western downtown area by 400% below. This section is just to the left of the most westerly stitching line. The detail is quite revealing and shows apparent streets, buildings and vegetation. The detail here is actually greater (but very similar) to that shown in a Landsat photo of Washington, DC in 1972. See, “Mission To Earth: Landsat Views The World,” published by NASA’s Scientific and Technical Information Office, 1976, at Plate 2, page 37. (Supt. of Docs. no.: NAS 1.21.360) By my calculations, the widest part of the city, by the westernmost downtown area, is sixteen miles wide. I estimate the length of the horizontal section of the city as being two hundred twenty-five miles long.
Buildings Below City
Below the downtown part of the city, near the intersection with the most western downward section of the city, are three apparent buildings. The photo below has been enlarged 400%. I note there are no streets going to these buildings while streets are still visible in the downtown area above them. I also note the buildings have unusual shapes, sort of like looking down on aircraft carriers. Perhaps the visitors to these buidings land on top like planes landing on an aircraft carrier.
Buildings By The Westerly Stitching Line
Below are two photos, each enlarged 400%, which show apparent buildings near or on the westernmost “stitching line.” The first one below is taken from the very top part of the stitching line. The second one below is taken further down, above an apparent boulder not shown in the enlargement..
A New South City Area With Its Own Downtown
The overview shown below helps the viewer place the location of this new south city area in relation to the main city area above it. The new south city area is a vertical rectangular section on the right side of the bottom of the viewing screen (scroll over to see it). Parallel to and just to the right of the new south city area is a “stitching line.” Above it and to the right is another vertical rectangle coming down from the horizontal section of the main city above. Go back to the photographic evidence page to click on the link for an enlargement of the upper portion of this south city downtown area.
Eastern Suburb/Outpost With Cubic Buildings
The photo belows shows the eastern end of the horizontal city segment (on the left side of the screen) followed by a vertical “stitching line” going up from the horizontal area. On the far right side of the screen (scroll over) is another vertical “stitching line” just to the left of a squarish anomaly which I will discuss more in the section on photographic fakery.
Between the two “stitching lines,” just below the horizontal city segment, is an irregular shaped depression, a little bit resembling a spire for the top of a Christmas tree, which contains two cubic buildings. Go back to the photographic evidence page to click on an enlargement of these cubic buildings.
Overview Showing Both Triangle And Square
The overview below helps locate where the triangle and square are in reference to the original city that was found. If you scroll all the way down to the lower left quadrant, you can see the easterly end of the city with the “stitching line” that proceeds up vertically to the right of the city.
To locate the square: If you scroll the photo all the way to the right and go down a little more than half of the photo length, you will see a square shape looking like something may have been broken or cut out. It is to the right of another “stitching line” and below an old volcanic dome.
To locate the triangle: Now scroll back to the far left of the screen and go to the upper left quadrant. About three inches down from the top and three inches in from the left side, you will see a triangle shape. There is also a typewritten/printed number “4” about three inches southeast of the triangle!
To see why I think each of these artifacts is probably a hoaxed photo of a model by NASA, go back to the photographic evidence section and click on the enlargements for each of these objects.
Possible Explanation For The “Stitching Lines” Consistent With Fakery
I have noted that the “stitching lines” seem to occur in this area on Mars in multiples which are evenly spaced and parallel to each other. The spacing on the computer screen at a resolution of 256 on the NASA Mars search engines is about ten inches between each parallel pair.
Most materials such as bolts of fabric, rolls of carpet, etc. come in standard widths. When joined the edges of the material are usually held securely together by tape on the underside or stitching. Could it be that these “stitching lines” are literally that, edges where some type of fabric or other material has been held together with stitches? Close examination of various Mars surfaces where “stitching lines” appear shows that some are smooth while others show evidence of some pressure scraping or smudging the surface overlapping each side of the “stitching line.”
A sewing machine has a metal foot that holds down the material to be stitched as it approaches the sewing needle. If the material to be stitched was rubbery, for example, the pressure of such a metal foot might smudge or scrape the surface. The “stitching lines” when magnified are not perfectly straight in their interpolation but vary slightly for perhaps one or two stitches at a time, consistent with a seamstress pausing to pull another section of material through the needle area.
This city on Mars seems to have developed in a manner similar to the development of civilization on Earth. On Earth cities sprang up where water was abundant, either on the coastal areas or next to lakes and rivers. An 85 mile long lake can provide plenty of water for city dwellers on Mars. On Earth man learned how to create dams on rivers to control and stockpile water. The water going from the lake to the river may enter a dam as it nears the western edge of the city on Mars. (Or I concede the dam may be an artifact of the mosaic process.) One detail supporting the dam hypothesis is that there appears to be a discolored oval area surrounding the dam area, possible evidence of a basin area filled in when the dam overflows its banks.
I feel the evidence is overwhelming that what is depicted in these photographs and enlargements shows intelligent design and not random flukes of nature. The water gushing out of the pipe or trenches shows no natural formation but appears to be the harnessing of an underground source. The close ups of the downtown area show a street system, along with buildings and possible vegetation, that is very similar to what Landsat images show for the Washington, DC area, for example. The three separate segments of dotted lines going up vertically from horizontal segment of the city do not occur in nature. They are the same distance apart also. The fact that the city segments, vertical or horizontal, are rectangular does not coincide with a random act of nature. The close ups of buildings in the desert near the city or close to the dotted lines show great detail as to shape- shapes which do not occur in nature. The shadows associated with these buildings indicate they may be multi-story and have sharp angles which would not be expected in nature since the elements of nature would tend to round off the surfaces.
In my view the photographs show a modern city on Mars or they are the product of an elaborate hoax. I don’t think NASA would admit countenancing a hoax since it would hurt their professional reputations and make Congress question their use of taxpayer funds. I also find it hard to believe that NASA would overlook this treasure trove of photographic evidence about a modern city on Mars. This leaves me with a limited number of likely explanations for what I have found:
- NASA wants to condition the American public to the idea of extraterrestrial life. It has been doing so over the years in a slow, gradual way, e.g. water on the Moon, water at the Martian poles, water on Europa, meteors on Earth from Mars with evidence of bacterial life inside them, etc. Let some researcher like me stumble upon the city on Mars via the now open public database. If society accepts the fact of intelligent life on Mars, proceed with more revelations that NASA has hidden for years.If society is not ready for this Mars revelation, deny its validity and blame it on some prankster from the United States Geological Survey.
- Some NASA employee who knows about the evidence of intelligent life on Mars is a renegade who believes the public has a right to know and made sure that some of the relevant information was placed in the Mars Explorer database in hopes that someone would discover it.
As between explanations one and two, I would place a bet on explanation number one above if I was a gambler. However, there is a third possibility, that of an elaborate hoax by NASA. 3) As shown by the section above on evidence for a photographic hoax, there is a strong possibility that at least some of the evidence of intelligent design in these photographs may have come from NASA hoaxers. Assuming that NASA has indeed sent missions to Mars that have produced useful data, why would NASA not want to share this data with the public? The only thing I can think of is that NASA has evidence of an advanced civilization more impressive and definitive than the evidence I have referred to here.
Maybe NASA feels the public is not yet ready for incontrovertible truth or fears that existing governmental and economic power structures would quickly crumble.