Surface Anatomy

Spine of T3 is opposite root of scapular spine. Spine of T7 is opposite inferior angle of scapula. 8th rib is just below inferior angle of scapula. Spine of T12 is opposite midpoint of line drawn from inferior angle of scapula to the iliac crest

Line joining posterior superior iliac spines passes through S2 spine. Posterior superior iliac spine overlies centre of sacroiliac joint.

Lower limit of spinal cord is at interval between L1 and L2. This is just above level of elbow joint with arm at side. Subarachnoid space reaches upper border of 3rd sacral spine.

Tips of transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae are 3-4 cm lateral to median plane (4.5 cm for L3).

Cervical pleura and lung apex reach spine of C7. Represent by convex line drawn from sternoclavicular joint to junction of medial and middle thirds of clavicle; summit is 3.5 cm above clavicle.

Lower limit of pleural sac reach a point 2 cm lateral to upper border of T12 spine. Draw a line downwards and laterally from here to cut lateral border of sacrospinalis just where tip of 12th rib emerges. Lower limit of lung is 5 cm above lower limit of pleura.

Kidneys are mapped by Morris’s parallelogram: draw horizontal lines through 11T and L3 spines, and vertical lines 2.5 and 9.5 cm from median plane.

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